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  1. Matrix(Config)# Roguetadhg's Avatar
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    #1

    Default Rogue's CCNA:Voice Studies

    So I might as well start going for my CCNA:Voice. I'll come back to CCNA:Security, but for the mean while, this book has been calling me too much.

    Initial Plan: 1 Chapter each day.

    Notes Plan:
    First Run Through: In book.
    Second: In Notebook
    Third: OneNote
    Lab Plan: Not a darn clue!
    Test Plan: Not a darn clue!
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  3. Audentis Fortuna Iuvat veritas_libertas's Avatar
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    #2
    LOL, so you are not going after the CCNA:S then? I have to admit that I find voice interesting as well.
    Currently working on: Resting
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  4. Matrix(Config)# Roguetadhg's Avatar
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    #3
    Im doing both - ish. I already had my Voice book for a while now. I decided to pick it up.

    I've come to the realization that Voice is going to be cheaper for me to lab. I have two PoE switches, for example. Both voice and security I won't be able to lab. My GNS3 has gone bonkers and can't find my VirtualBox. I read the forum, on there. But the "solution" isn't helping me. So that shoots using Virtualized Routers/ASA

    I've read the Security book twice over. The pages could use a break. I'm interested to see how Voice fits into the picture as on the network as well as out of the physical domain.

    The most I knew prior to reading the first chapter are the PoE phones have a built-in switch. And that came from CCNA? I think so.

    I've got a firm understanding on Security theory (as far as what's been introduced to me). I've read the CCNA book twice now!

    Ultimately, I want the Cert, but it can wait. I'll revisit it. I want both. They're the next two in line, than Wireless. But Eh. I'm not sure if I'll actually take the Cert test for Wireless. I might just read it, lab it, grasp everything but the mathmatics.


    Im not done with the first chapter and I can tell you that Voice is definitely interesting! It's like a whole different internet! Yeah. It's pretty sweet. I didn't do a overview of what the layout is, too much. I tagged the chapters. That's it.
    Last edited by Roguetadhg; 10-09-2012 at 04:27 PM.
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  5. Senior Member YFZblu's Avatar
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    #4
    Boooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo

    I'm kidding - Well, sort of Good luck! I'll be following this thread.
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  6. Audentis Fortuna Iuvat veritas_libertas's Avatar
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    #5
    I've calculated the cost, and for me voice would be cheaper as well. Crazy...
    Currently working on: Resting
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  7. Matrix(Config)# Roguetadhg's Avatar
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    #6
    Quote Originally Posted by YFZblu View Post
    Boooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo

    I'm kidding - Well, sort of Good luck! I'll be following this thread.
    Come at me bro!

    Trust me, I still want my ISRs and debug VPN tunnels!

    My boss wanted me to go this route immediately after my CCNA pass. Mind you, I'm as stubborn as a bull and there's no company 'help' so I decided to go my own way. :P
    Last edited by Roguetadhg; 10-09-2012 at 04:32 PM.
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  8. The Undeniable!!! jahsoul's Avatar
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    #7
    LOL.....I know how you feel about getting bit by the voice bug. It happened to me. Just knew I was going to be a R&S guy, but this is where I am now.

    I honestly got frustrated going through ICOMM. I read and went through the INE Bootcamp but it was just like, "this involves administration to UC servers that are already configured. Enjoy." I took a step back and just decided to go through the CCNP Voice first then do ICOMM. I still have all my notes from ICOMM so I'm still going to take that but it was better for me to do it this way. YMMV
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  9. Matrix(Config)# Roguetadhg's Avatar
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    #8
    How are you studying? Lab wise, jahsoul?

    What's your setup, any sites/stuff you've used besides INE Bootcamp?
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  10. The Undeniable!!! jahsoul's Avatar
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    #9
    I have the INE Lab setup (95% though). Right now, I only have a 2 branch router setup because I need PVDMs and VWIC for my BR2 router.

    HQ - 3825 1GB Ram/256mb CF, NME-16ES-1G-P, PVDM2-48, 1DSU-T1 v2 and 1MFT-T1, 7961-GE and 7961
    BR1 - 2811 512mb RAM/256 CF, PVDM2-8, 1DSU-T1 v2 and 1MFT-T1, 7970 and 7941
    PSTN - 3725 Maxed Out, NM-HDV with 2x PVDM-12, 2CTI-CSU for data, 2x 1MFT-T1, CIPC for phone

    Not being used is another 2811 and I have 2x 2851's that are being shipped now that I REALLY shouldn't have bought but I saw the price and instinctively went for it. smh.

    I'm reading CIPT1 Foundation Learning Guide now and I'm getting deep into it. I'm at a crossroad because I really need to take ICOMM to get a job but the CCNP Voice exams is helping me get a better understanding. It is not like they hit you with a lot of assumed knowledge. It goes from scratch.

    (and I actually have 2 2851's being shipped now that I REALLY shouldn't have bought but I saw the price and went for it.)
    Last edited by jahsoul; 10-09-2012 at 05:24 PM.
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  11. Matrix(Config)# Roguetadhg's Avatar
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    #10
    So you have a CCNP:Voice lab?
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  12. Matrix(Config)# Roguetadhg's Avatar
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    #11
    Day 1: Section 1: Chapter 1: Traditional Vs Unified Voice

    I have to get used to not having italics for important words in the text. Unlike CCNA:Security (640-554), Key phrase words aren't emphasized. Not a real problem. Just gotta keep on my toes.

    Discusses the theory behind Transforming Analog Voice into Digital Bits. Went Briefly into Codecs (G.729 and G.711) and how they're rated (MOS). I don't understand if all codecs "replay" sounds then they should all be the same. They're not, as also stated in the book.

    A lot of history. ~7 pages of new stuff.

    It takes me 4 hours to get through 18 pages. My note taking steps currently:
    1. Heavy \ slants at all periods.
    2. Light / slants at all commas. Mostly to lengthen the comma.
    - The first two allow me to stay focused. It allows me to not keep 'skimming' what I need to focus on -

    6. In-text listed items: I put little numbered circles around these lists.
    7. Underline "and". Noties to me there's 2 or more parts.
    8. Draw-in larger ":"s
    9. Circle Things that's doing something.

    Example: "RTP adds time stamps and sequence numbers..."
    RTP Circled. Time Stamps, Sequence numbers have a small numbered 1 and 2. And is underlined.

    3. Purple-Highlight circle the dotted line around "Key Topics".
    4. Blue-highlight listed items.
    5. Yellow-Highlight Acronyms, Key Phrases.

    Made an INE account for the free (current) Boot camp videos.

    I work in a call center, so I've been able to see the transition to softphones. I guess I'm more interested in this topic considering I work around phones!
    Last edited by Roguetadhg; 10-09-2012 at 07:17 PM.
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  13. Audentis Fortuna Iuvat veritas_libertas's Avatar
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    #12
    Quote Originally Posted by Roguetadhg View Post
    Discusses the theory behind Transforming Analog Voice into Digital Bits. Went Briefly into Codecs (G.729 and G.711) and how they're rated (MOS). I don't understand if all codecs "replay" sounds then they should all be the same. They're not, as also stated in the book.
    Doesn't this have to do with compression and quality of the audio? Now I'm curious. Thanks for distracting me! lol

    FYI, CCNA Voice course is still free on INE.
    Currently working on: Resting
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  14. Matrix(Config)# Roguetadhg's Avatar
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    #13
    Yeah. Codecs determine the compression. The quality of the compression is what I don't fully understand. So far it's described as more or less complex. However, as it's explained so far is... Replaying or "Building a codebook".

    For me, I envision a sound board. A program or the like that has multiple different sounds - like a Radio station might have. They'll play a bell, ducks, sayings, etc. You don't have to have people Quack you can press a button and bam: "Quack". Lowers the processing for us by using a single button instead of trying to make the best Duck sound.

    Yeah. I see it's free. It took me a little bit to get to it!
    Last edited by Roguetadhg; 10-09-2012 at 07:23 PM.
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  15. Audentis Fortuna Iuvat veritas_libertas's Avatar
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    #14
    The only way I can relate is from the VoIP services I have used in the past. Some had great quality at 30Kbps. Very cool technology and everyone commented on how great the audio was when I called them. Believe it or not, I've known people to use it with dial-up and it worked!
    Currently working on: Resting
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  16. Matrix(Config)# Roguetadhg's Avatar
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    #15
    Yeah, there's a listing of the Audio Codec Bandwidth and MOS values. G.729 is 8kbps at 3.92. out of 5.

    Finally with this chapter, I know why people sound different over the phone! So worth it.
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  17. Network Consultant FloOz's Avatar
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    #16
    Goodluck in your studies Rogue
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  18. Matrix(Config)# Roguetadhg's Avatar
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    #17
    Day 2: Section 1: Chapter 1 - Understanding the Pieces of Cisco Unified Communications.

    A lot of Unification. CUCM, CUE, CME, Unified Presence. At the end of the chapter I felt like I was going to take pompoms and cheerlead. There wasn't a lot of "non-vendor" talk.

    A lot of Call Flow. Thankfully, this helped to cement what the little icons are. I think I'm beginning to understand how to design a voice network as far as Phones.

    I've been confusing Cisco Unified Communications Manager with Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express. I've done two things, mentally to separate the two:
    1. CME = Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express.
    2. CME is the "Light" version of CUCM. Like Dr. Pepper Diet. Or BAWLS Sugar Free. Express = Diet.

    Everytime I read: "Cue" I've always thought of "Q" from Star Trek..

    Gone over Chapter 1 Notes.
    Looking for a lab build list. I'm worried about the licensing for the CME: Version 4.1 would be okay? Or newer is needed?
    Last edited by Roguetadhg; 10-10-2012 at 08:55 PM.
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  19. Happiness is !!!!! MAC_Addy's Avatar
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    #18
    Quote Originally Posted by Roguetadhg View Post
    Everytime I read: "Cue" I've always thought of "Q" from Star Trek..
    Strange, when I first picked up this book I said the same thing. God I love Star Trek.
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  20. The Undeniable!!! jahsoul's Avatar
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    #19
    You know what's funny. It like I read CUCME and I get the express part and then I flip through that 1700 page admin guide....*shudders*
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  21. Matrix(Config)# Roguetadhg's Avatar
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    #20
    Day 3: Section 1: Chapter 3.

    The Topology that was at the front of the chapter really didn't make any sense when I skimed over this chapter prior to Chapter 1. It made about 50% sense Before reading Chapter 3. It makes 100% sense after reading Chapter 3. I think that's the goal! If you have the book, take a glance at it. It's chock full of lines, arrows, numbers. Very intimidating.

    I felt rushed through the chapter. Main points:

    1. Prestandard & PoE (802.3af). - Now I realize I could have used patch panels, instead of relying on a PoE switch. Im not sure of the reason for the coupler. The coupler inserts power for 1 phone, and requires 1 outlet. Only way I can figure it out is to use it at the server room. Or just buy the power brick. In the book it states one key fact - Buying bricks for phones may not be cheaper than just to buy a new switch. Given that the switch would need to have the functionality to support VoIP - even if it's not supplying electrical power.

    Good to know what the other 4 wires are used for - Transmitting power.

    I'm not sure of "How" the Switch "knows" the power should be transmitted. Ie: Does the power get transmitted to other end-points? Printers, Computers, etc. If Not, how does it determine when to send power? The books discusses the possible sources of power almost right away.

    2. VLANs
    A nice review. I felt that the review may have been too long discussing how tagging works: How VLANs work, What is the trunking protocol, How the computer does not get a tagged frame. ...If you're reading the book, you probably remembered VLANs from the CCNA:R+S. Although, I can see how excluding this would make it a little harder to understand. It's just easier to include 3 pages of review! Doesn't hurt to get reviews anyways. I was expecting to go into VTP there! :P

    It's about 1/2 Old, 1/2 New information.

    As far as the new information: The phone support 802.1Q tagging and tags its own packets: Switch Interface configuration is still "Access". Used to be "trunking" but changed due to security. Phone leaves Data packets untagged. Phone receives it's VLAN information via CDP on bootup.... Which im getting ahead of myself!

    Little bit of configuration for VLANs. One note: spanning-tree portfast should be enabled. Phone would boot too quick for a switch otherwise. I feel like a nerd on a hot date that hasn't got any intimacy for too long. I gotta pound out some commands!


    3. Phone Bootup: Procedure / NTP / Registration / Using a Router for DHCP [Lab-only?].
    It's a large section. The forest view is this: Phone Bootup!

    The configuration for router DHCP probably isn't too important. I see this being handed off to Windows or Unix. Not handled by the router. I can see this being a "Lab" only topic. Not seen on the test, that is.

    Bootup:
    1. Phone is connected to Switch.
    2. Phone & Switch agree to send power, or not. (?)
    3. Switch send VLAN information [CDP] to Phone.

    4. Phone Sends DHCP Request.
    5. DHCP Server responds with DHCP Information + Option 150 (TFTP IP address)

    6. Phone contacts TFTP server.
    7. TFTP server Sends Configuration file #1. (List of Call Processing Servers. 3 Max)

    8. Phone Contacts Call Processing Server (CUCM/CME). [SIP/SCCP]
    9. Phone IDs itself (At the same time?) with it's MAC Address.
    10. Call Processing Server sends Configuration File #2 (Operating Config)



    Question 1: If a phone can only search 3 CUCM Servers for phone registration (from the .xml config file), why can CUCM clusters go upto 8 (1 Publisher/Master and 7 Scribers/Slaves) servers? Are "three CUCM server"s supposed to be "three CUCM clusters", instead? I went back to chapter two, just to make sure that I was right - CUCM/CME do handle phone registrations. It states "three servers" twice.

    Question 2: Is SIP most widely used? I know in the call center we have, SIP is what's used... Can't help but see the protocol when fixing the phones! I ask because the book states it may not be the most used protocol by the time I read it.

    I'll go back over this section tomorrow and probably monday before progressing onto the next chapter and section. I'm not in a rush.
    Last edited by Roguetadhg; 10-12-2012 at 12:15 AM.
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  22. Matrix(Config)# Roguetadhg's Avatar
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    #21
    I've gone ahead and did some cisco website searching for my questions:

    Cisco Detection (AC Discovery).
    1. Switch send a special "fast link Pulse (FLP)" signal to any device connected to the port.
    2. Switch port determines if the special FLP signal is looped back by the powered device. (Only Inline-Power devices well send the signal back.)
    3. Switch detects the loop-back.
    4. Switch Decides if there is power available for the End-Point. May use default parameters.
    5. Switch port gives power; Internal [phone] relay opens, breaking the loopback. (Just for you JD)
    6. End-Point Device boots; CDP becomes active. (Uses CDP information for power allocation information.)

    Relay:
    (Switch || End-Point)



    Troubleshooting Power over Ethernet (PoE) - Cisco Systems

    Phone Registration: (Cisco Site)


    Troubleshooting Cisco IP Phone Registration Problems with Cisco CallManager 3.x and 4.x - Cisco Systems
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  23. The Undeniable!!! jahsoul's Avatar
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    #22
    First off....go to sleep...lol.

    As far as Question 1 - A cluster can have up to 20 nodes per cluster. 8 servers are the maximum number of servers that can be CPEs (CallManager service) . In most cases, a Sub will never run as a CPE. The reason a phone is limited to 3 is because a max of 3 CPEs can be in a CM Group. So at most, you can register to 4 nodes, 3 CPEs (primary, backup, and tertiary) and a router in SRST mode. I hope I explained that clear.

    Single Cluster with a max of 20 nodes:
    1 Publisher
    Up to 8 CPEs
    Up to 2 TFTP
    And the rest can be media services like MoH, MTP and crap like that..lol.

    Now as far a groups....From the SRND

    "A Cisco Unified Communications Manager Group specifies a prioritized list of up to three Cisco Unified Communications Managers. The first Cisco Unified Communications Manager in the list serves as the primary Cisco Unified Communications Manager for that group, and the other members of the group serve as secondary and tertiary (backup) Cisco Unified Communications Managers.


    Each device pool has one Cisco Unified Communications Manager Group that is assigned to it. When a device registers, it attempts to connect to the primary (first) Cisco Unified Communications Manager in the group that is assigned to its device pool. If the primary Cisco Unified Communications Manager is not available, the device tries to connect to the next Cisco Unified Communications Manager that is listed in the group, and so on. "
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  24. Matrix(Config)# Roguetadhg's Avatar
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    #23
    Quote Originally Posted by jahsoul View Post
    First off....go to sleep...lol.
    I went to sleep! then I woke up and started studying!
    As far as Question 1 - A cluster can have up to 20 nodes per cluster. 8 servers are the maximum number of servers that can be CPEs (CallManager service) . In most cases, a Sub will never run as a CPE.
    I thought Subscribers do call processing? Maybe I don't understand what a CPE does.

    The reason a phone is limited to 3 is because a max of 3 CPEs can be in a CM Group. So at most, you can register to 4 nodes, 3 CPEs (primary, backup, and tertiary) and a router in SRST mode. I hope I explained that clear.

    Single Cluster with a max of 20 nodes:
    1 Publisher
    Up to 8 CPEs
    Up to 2 TFTP
    And the rest can be media services like MoH, MTP and crap like that..lol.
    Okay... What I don't understand: There's upto 8 CPEs. Example: 7 CPEs (CUCM/CME/...)

    But then you tell me there's a maximum number of CPEs in a CM Group.

    Now as far a groups....From the SRND

    "A Cisco Unified Communications Manager Group specifies a prioritized list of up to three Cisco Unified Communications Managers. The first Cisco Unified Communications Manager in the list serves as the primary Cisco Unified Communications Manager for that group, and the other members of the group serve as secondary and tertiary (backup) Cisco Unified Communications Managers.


    Each device pool has one Cisco Unified Communications Manager Group that is assigned to it. When a device registers, it attempts to connect to the primary (first) Cisco Unified Communications Manager in the group that is assigned to its device pool. If the primary Cisco Unified Communications Manager is not available, the device tries to connect to the next Cisco Unified Communications Manager that is listed in the group, and so on. "
    Okay. So let's clear the elephant in the room:

    1. Cluster =\= Group?

    Thank you, by the way.

    Im going to watch the first 9 videos of CBT nuggets. I think these videos are covered by the first section


    Edit: Okay, Because it's nagging me: I looked up the cluster description, the Subscribers do "Dial tones, receiving digits, routing calls, streams hold music." So, I go back to Chapter 2, and see that "CME Router" is used for call processing, if the call doesn't go outside. So CME and CUCM should not be used to try to understand the function of the "Cluster"? As the CME seems to generally be a All-on-one everything.

    So Clusters can only really be looked at as a CUCM technology. I'm going to forget that CME exists for now as it's adding confusion. I'm re-reading (Not just my margin notes) everything on CUCM in Chapter 3.

    1. Publisher serves TFTP Requests. Sends Database Changes to Subscribers. Kept away from heavy work
    2. Subscribers handle Dial Tone, Receiving Digits, Routing Calls, Streaming music.


    The call Processing with CUCM is as follows:
    Based on the configuration (From TFTP Server, from Publisher), a phone can use a list of 3 Redundant CUCM Servers.
    - If primary is down, uses backup; if backup is down, use tertiary.
    [Heres the fun part]
    Because your CUCM cluster can support upto 9 call processing servers (8 subscribers, 1 publisher), you can manually load balance different primary, secondary, tertiary. I guess I was looking for an "Automatic" way to do this! >.>
    Last edited by Roguetadhg; 10-12-2012 at 12:19 PM.
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  25. The Undeniable!!! jahsoul's Avatar
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    #24
    Quote Originally Posted by Roguetadhg View Post
    I thought Subscribers do call processing? Maybe I don't understand what a CPE does.
    Most CPEs are subscribers (you can technically run the pub as a CPE but not recommended), but not all subscribers are CPEs. Subscribers can have multiple roles added. So a TFTP server can be a subscriber, so forth and so on.

    Okay... What I don't understand: There's upto 8 CPEs. Example: 7 CPEs (CUCM/CME/...)

    But then you tell me there's a maximum number of CPEs in a CM Group.
    Yes, each cluster can have 8 server with the CallManager service activated. But you can have CM Groups within the cluster. Which takes me to the next question



    Okay. So let's clear the elephant in the room:

    1. Cluster =\= Group?

    Thank you, by the way.
    No. Groups are a contained within a cluster and their main purpose is redundancy and load balancing.
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  26. Matrix(Config)# Roguetadhg's Avatar
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    #25
    Alright. I think I got it now. I shall demonstrate my new-found awareness!


    groups.jpg

    Red Circle: Groups.
    Grey Circle: Cluster.

    Okay, so now let's get back to why there's "20" in the cluster, when I've been told there's 9. No more.
    Last edited by Roguetadhg; 10-12-2012 at 12:33 PM.
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