Email has become a very popular way to communicate
and is therefore also a popular target for malicious attackers
and cyber vandalism. In addition to concerns regarding privacy,
message integrity, and sender authenticity, a mail system’s
users need to be protected from a daily flood of spam and
viruses. These TechNotes cover some of the popular technologies
for secure messaging, focusing on the Security+ exam objectives
listed at the bottom.
Email was originally developed to exchange
plain text messages, but after some time people wanted to
be able to include files such as images, reports, and even
executables in the message. To allow these attachments with
different formats and to allow interoperability between email
systems, the Multipurpose Internet Mail Exchange (MIME) standard
was developed. To secure the message as well as the attachments,
an extended version of MIME was developed, which is called
Secure MIME (S/MIME). S/MIME is a comprehensive technology
that encapsulates many different security functions to satisfy
some of the concerns mentioned earlier. S/MIME allows users
to encrypt and sign messages as described in the following
A user that sends a message with confidential
information can keep the contents private while it travels
to its destination by using message encryption. For message
encryption, a symmetric algorithm (DES, 3DES, or in older
implementations RC2) is used to encrypt the message data.
The key used for this process is a one-time bulk key generated
at the email client. The recipient of the encrypted message
needs the same symmetric key to decrypt the data, so the key
needs to be communicated to the recipient in a secure manner.
To accomplish that, an asymmetric key algorithm (RSA or Diffie-Hellman)
is used to encrypt and securely exchange the symmetric key.
The key used for this part of the message encryption process
is the recipient’s public key. When the recipient receives
the encrypted message, he will use his private key to decrypt
the symmetric key, which in turn is used to decrypt the message
As you can see, this type of message encryption
uses a hybrid system, which means it uses both symmetric and
asymmetric algorithms. The reason for not using the public
key system to encrypt the data directly is that it requires
a lot of CPU resources, symmetric encryption is much faster
than asymmetric encryption. Only the contents of a message
is encrypted; the header of the message is not encrypted so
mail gateways can read addressing information and forward
the message accordingly.
In addition to keeping message contents confidential,
S/MIME offers sender authenticity, non-repudiation, and message
integrity by adding a digital signature to a message. When
a user signs a message, a hashing algorithm (MD5 or SHA-1)
is used to create a message digest. This message digest is
in turn encrypted with the sender’s private key by using
an asymmetric algorithm (RSA or DSA).
When the recipient receives the message,
he will use the sender’s public key to decrypt the message
digest value. If the recipient is able to do this, the sender
proved he is who he claims to be (authenticity), and because
that person should be the only one with the private key, the
recipient can prove that he received a message from that person,
so the sender cannot deny sending it (non-repudiation). When
the recipient decrypted the message digest value (or hash
value), he will run the message through the same hashing algorithm
and compare the outcome with the value in the digital signature.
If the message digest values match, the message has not been
tampered with during transmission (integrity), hence it proves
the message is the exactly the same message the sender originally
There are two different types of signing,
opaque, and clear signing. With clear signing, the digital
signature is added to the message as a separate attachment
while the message itself remains in clear text. This may be
required when sending a message to an older email client.
With opaque signing, the message and the digital signature
are combined into a single binary file. Signing a message
does not mean it is encrypted, and encrypting a message does
not require a digital signature.
• When a user sends an encrypted message,
the recipient’s public key is used to encrypt the message.
The recipient’s private key is used to decrypt the message.
• When a user signs a message, the sender’s private
key is used to encrypt the message digest. The recipient uses
the sender’s public key to verify the signature.
S/MIME relies on an X.509 certificate Public
Key Infrastructure (PKI) for private/pubic key management.
This means users use X.509 certificates to exchange the public
keys used to encrypt a message or verify a digital signature.
All users involved must trust the Certification Authority
(CA) that issued the users’ certificates, either directly
or indirectly, in a hierarchical trust model.
The first time an email client is enabled
for signing and encryption, the client contacts a certificate
authority (CA), which generates the private/public key pairs
(modern systems use a different pair for signing and encryption)
and uses one-time session keys to securely communicate the
key pairs to the client. The private key is usually stored
on the local computer and can be decrypted and used for signing
or encrypting by using a password. As the name implies, private
keys should be kept private at all time. In modern systems
a copy of the key is stored in a central database to allow
key recovery in case the user lost his private key (or the
password to access it). PKI and certificates will be covered
in more detail in other TechNotes.
PGP was originally a freeware message encryption
system and offers users to choose from several encryption
algorithms. It was released by Philip
R. Zimmermann in 1991, and was the first encryption technology
widely available to the general public (something the US government
wasn’t too happy about). It does not need a hierarchical
trust model like S/MIME with X.509v3 certificates, but instead
users themselves are responsible for exchanging the public
keys and building a ring of trust with other users.
The public key is a simple block of text,
making it easy to exchange the key with others by just including
it in an email message directly or exporting it to a text
file. Users can also make their public keys available through
a keyserver on the Internet, i.e. keyserver.pgp.com. The private
key is stored on the local computer and is protected with
PGP is also a hybrid encryption system. The
latest versions of PGP support AES, CAST, IDEA, Twofish, and
3DES algorithm for the symmetric portion; to encrypt the actual
data. That symmetric key is in turn encrypted by using an
asymmetric algorithm (RSA, DSS/Diffie-Hellman) to allow users
to securely exchange the symmetric key with each other. It
is now also possible to use X.509 certificates from a CA to
prove identity and ownership of PGP public keys. A sender’s
private key is used for signing and the recipient’s
public key is used to for encryption, just like in S/MIME.
Because the source code of PGP has always
been available to the public, several free, commercial, legal,
pirated, and international versions of PGP are available,
supporting several different services including encryption
and digital signatures and support a wide range of algorithms
including ElGamal, DSA, AES, 3DES. Blowfish, Twofish, CAST,
MD5, SHA-1, and more. PGP Inc. still offers a free version
for personal non-commercial use, which you can download here.
S/MIME and PGP can keep message contents
confidential on their way from email client to email client.
However, other vulnerable parts in an email system, i.e. client-server
or server-server connections, need to be secured as well by
using SSL, TLS, IPsec, VPNs, or some other means of secure
Spam is unsolicited, typically commercial,
junk mail. Nobody wants it but virtually anyone with a mailbox
gets it. Apart from spam filters at clients and servers, you
can reduce the effect spam has on your SMTP mail servers,
and hence the legitimate users, by disabling relaying and
enabling reverse lookups.
Especially older systems relay every message
regardless of the source domain in the address. This means
you could send a message with the source address firstname.lastname@example.org
from a mail server hosting users for the email domain def.com.
So basically, a server that allows relaying allows users to
send messages with a fake or ‘spoofed’ source
address. The major spammers continuously scan the Internet
for ‘open’ mail relays, so they can abuse those
for sending thousands of messages while using someone else’s
resources and hiding behind them. Although most modern email
systems relay only for the domain(s) local to the server and
those explicitly specified by an administrator, there are
still a lot of mail servers that allow relaying for any domain.
You can check a server manually by opening
a Telnet session to port 25 on the mail server and use the
following command sequence when the welcome message appears
that says it is ready to accept commands:
HELO (or EHLO)
MAIL FROM: email@example.com
RCPT TO: firstname.lastname@example.org
Your salary has been doubled because of your excellent work
for the company.
(Note the dot on the last line). If the server
accepts the message for delivery, the server is vulnerable.
In that case you will have to disable relaying and specify
the domains the server should relay manually. If the server
is configured correctly, it will reply with something like
“Relaying not allowed”, which it usually does
after you issue the MAIL FROM: command with a fake source
Unfortunately, there will always be careless
administrators that leave their servers open for relaying.
To reduce the chance of receiving spam from those servers,
you should enable reverse lookups. This allows your mail server
to verify if the IP address of a remote server is actually
mapped to the domain for which that server wants to send messages.
So when a spammer abuses an open server to send messages to
your server, the incoming connection will be rejected because
your server will consult DNS and see that the source domain
of the spam messages doesn’t map to the IP address of
the remote server.